Learn How to Make Wine
Have you ever wondered or wished you could learn how to make wine? This video will show you the time-tested steps. Before you know it, you’ll be growing your own grapes and bottling it on your own!
It can hold different meanings for each of us for some it’s, a simple beverage to be enjoyed at mealtime for others. It’s, a commodity, something sought after it and collected yet for many wine remains intimidating and it doesn’t have to be, after all, it’s, only fermented grape juice hi.
I’m Michael Fagan. In this episode, we’re, going to travel to some of the finest wine regions of the world and help you learn how to make wine. We’ll meet the winemakers and discover the secrets of winemaking and the magic of the grape.
What to watch next? Learn the difference between red and white wine!
Although we are all familiar with various grapes from the fruit stand, the species of grape, which has proven best for the production of wine, is called vidis vinifera, which means literally the wine grape, whether chardonnay, cabernet, sauvignon or Pinot Noir virtually all wine grapes used today stem From Vitis vinifera called the noble grape, most wine grapes are grown in two belts around the globe between 30 and 50 degrees latitude, north and south.
These regions have the temperate climate and moderate rainfall the grapes need to flourish. The cycle also includes a beneficial winter season, because grapevines need a time to rest between crops. Now it’s, not just a matter of geography, selection of a proper site and the skill of the growers and winemakers will determine the character of the finished wine.
There is an innate factor which is that they WA, which is the location you well. You name it and the place where you grow vines and then there there are required factors which are at least as important and the work of people who have just developed viticulture in that first identify the place as potentially extremely rewarding and then worked on it.
So in order to produce wine. Traditionally, grapes were grown tracts of land that were left over when better soils were used to farm grain and vegetable produce. Today, many of the world’s. Grape growers believe that poor soil produces the best fruit.
Obviously, soil conditions will vary widely across the world, but there can be dramatic differences even in the same vineyard it. I found it very surprising on my first visit, the difference in terroir the difference in soil from one property to another.
The differences in soil, the climber and even the microclimate around the vine will influence the character of the wine produced. The character of Hawaii is starts with the place that it’s, grown and different soil types, and then micro climates produce different qualities, some better than others, and some more interesting than others.
And you’re, always trying to highlight the best potential qualities that a given site or soil can give you to make it harder against disease and pests and to adapt it to different soil conditions around the world.
The Vitis vinifera vine is often grafted with partier north american roots done. The grafting consists of actually cutting the chute of each varietal and binding them together to form a new living plant.
The resulting vine will then possess the qualities of the noble grape Vettes Vinny Farah, along with the desirable properties of the partier root. Stop it’s, really quite a sturdy and Hardy plant isn’t it.
Oh it’s. Very much so very very much so it’ll tolerate many different soil conditions. Many different climatic conditions, hillsides valleys. It’s, a very tough once a new vineyard site has been selected and cleared.
The grafted vines are planted. This comes after careful analysis of the many growing conditions, all of which are included in the French word. Terroir terroir means not only the ground in which the grapes are grown, but also the atmosphere that the aspect, the weather around and the drainage it takes into account.
All kinds of aspects about how that grape was grown, so this is Merlot yes in grape growing, there are no overnight miracles. Rarely is the reusable harvest before the third years cry and growers will wait decades for the blind to yield its highest quality fruit.
Well, there’s, a saying in Windham that says that “the older the vine, the better the wine”. When they’re healthy, that’s Absolutely true. Older vineyards care for their fruit differently than say teenage vines in that they will shift their energy away from creating vegetation to looking after the fruit at a slightly earlier time.
And then they don’t race to maturity. And so that’s, something that we find gives better flavor, more complexity and more density, and it basically comes down to the longer. A vine is in the ground the more extensive, a root system it can develop and what happens is the deeper and more extensive? That root system is the more access the vine has to other things in the soil.
Spring marks the beginning of a new year in the vineyard here in France’s Alsace region. The beginning of the growing season is celebrated with the procession of the patron saint of the growers.
Work in the vineyards actually began months earlier. First, the vines were pruned to remove unnecessary canes. This results in fewer but larger bunches of ripe grapes and controls the shape of the vine.
Next, the shoots are tied to the appropriate wires on the trellis structure that support the vine. Although the grape is a creeping or climbing vine and can grow a while, but must be trained to the trellis structure, to produce optimal fruit for the winemaker in late spring, the growth cycle begins with flowering.
Most grape vines are self pollinating, containing both male and female parts. At this point in the season, the grower can begin to predict how much a vineyard will yield at harvest as the season progresses.
Grape growers will continue to monitor the health and development of the fruit Hollow. I found my missing. The growers objective is to improve the yield and overall quality of the fruit by maintaining good ventilation within the volume and managing the fruits.
Exposure to the Sun in drier climates grape growers depend on irrigation for the survival of their vines. This control over water supply can have a distinct advantage, allowing them to regulate the moisture a plant receives and making them less vulnerable to erratic weather conditions.
If you irrigate, you’re not battling what Mother Nature is thrown at you all the time. So you’re, putting on very exacting amounts of water which really help you to dial in your your wine Styles, your grape styles out in the vineyard.
Often the spraying of fungicides, herbicides and pesticides are necessary to control disease and pests. Their use, however, must be discontinued well before the harvest. This is the Fonterra vineyard.
There is an alternative, however, used in virtually all parts of the wine world. Some growers employ organic viticultural practices to combat pests and disease. Well, what organic means in the production of winemaking wine is it in our grape growing? We’re, not using anything, synthetic chemicals, no pesticides, herbicides or fertilizers.
The whole approach is prevention, so, in a case of an insect population we plant things between the grapes, daikon radish, bell, beans, oats, all kinds of things that provide nectar that attract predatory insects and that keeps our insect population stand.
It’s. Moving insect pests are also controlled in other ways. Here, pheromones are placed in the vineyard to disrupt insect pests, reproduction and protect the vine throughout the entire growing season.
A process called canopy management is employed. The vines need to be constantly trimmed to reduce excess vegetation. This hedging directs all the vines energy to where it’ll. Do the most good into the grapes also leaves that have grown up around the grape bunches may be removed to allow more sunshine onto the fruit for better ripening and various stages of growth.
Immature grape clusters will also be removed to direct more nutrients to the remaining bunches. This is called the green harvest. The first thing we do is to cut off those green berries. It does two things: one: we produce the crops, so we get more intensity, but also we even out the ripeness so that when we harvest all of the clusters are right about the same ripeness.
Had you come here 30 years ago, people would have a touched. The vine twice pruning and harvesting that was it today. Pruning is much more serious than ever before, which is the most important element as autumn approaches.
The grapes begin to ripen changing from the hard green berries to yellow green, pink and soft blue colors of ripe grapes. This transitional stage called for Asian as a time when more sugar will be produced and stored within the berries you an early autumn when the process is complete.
Growers begin checking the grapes on a daily basis for ripeness. This is critical when you learn how to make wine. What they’re looking for is an optimal balance between sugars and acid within the grapes. Unlike some other fruits, grapes will not continue to ripen once they’re picked from the vine.
Selecting the right moment to harvest is the most critical decision in the growers. Year may recite another few weeks. Yes, I would think, maybe almost a month in cooler, growing regions like Ontario, the fall weather can be highly unpredictable, making the decision to harvest all the more critical along with their years of experience.
Today, growers have turned increasingly to technological advances like remote weather stations to help predict local weather patterns. A heavy rainfall during the harvest phase can advance rot and disease or waterlogged the fruit which, dilutes their sugars in warm climate regions.
Growers can generally rely on favorable dry conditions at harvest. This results in consistent ripening of fruit from one vintage to the next, when the sugars in the grape have reached their peak, the harvest can begin while the venues of the north are blanketed under snow.
The warm months of February and March mark the harvest in the southern hemisphere. This is a time of frenzied activity as communities come together to make the year’s wine. Everyone participates here… everyone wants to learn how to make wine!
This is the culmination of months of hard work in the vineyards and a race to collect the fruit at its peak for many producers. The best method for selecting and picking grapes is manual harvesting a process as old as winemaking itself.
Crews of Pickers will move from row to row, cutting grape bunches off the vine with shears in the Bordeaux region of France, where many wineries have achieved an almost legendary status. Only the highest-quality fruit is hand-picked, leaving any inferior grapes behind, but when it comes to the immense vineyards necessary for large-scale production, mechanical harvesters are unmatched in efficiency.
First developed in the 60s. The mechanical harvester has replaced hand picking and a majority of the world’s vineyards today. These machines straddled the rows of vines gently shaking the grapes loose. You can learn how to make wine with or without one!
Their hoppers are then emptied into bins for transport to the wineries. The arrival of the fruit at the winery marks an important transition in the winemaking process. The grower, who’s nurtured the grapes to fruition throughout the season, must place his bounty in the trust of the winemaker. He doesn’t need to again Learn how to make wine!
The winemaker will now transform the fruit through veneficus into finished. Wine now begins the process of extracting sweet juice and flavor compounds from the grape first, the stalks are removed by passing through a crusher destemmer that also lightly cracks the skin of the grapes.
Unlike the Reds, white wine, grapes are transferred directly to a wine press exerting gradual pressure on the grapes. The press separates the liquid from the solid matter. The resulting liquid is called the must containing water, sugar acids and flavor compounds and every step in the process.
Random tests are performed to assess sugar levels acidity and pH that gauge the overall quality of the juice the must is pumped into tanks for fermentation the tanks are made from a variety of materials ranging from stainless steel to traditional wood.
Cultured yeast is added, which more efficiently converts the sugars into alcohol. Fermentation of white wine takes place at cooler, temperatures than red, and the process can last for up to three weeks, the cooler temperatures within the tanks, aid in preserving the delicate fruit flavors that distinguish white wines.
But these tanks can also be used for extreme cooling. In a process called cold stabilization, the temperature inside the tank drops well below zero to crystallize the naturally occurring tartaric acid onto the tank walls.
If left in the bottle, these harmless crystals, sometimes called wine diamonds could be perceived in many ways. An interesting fact is that the juice from most grapes, even red grapes, is white. (important to know when you learn how to make wine)
For this reason, white wines can be made from red grapes. Champagne is a good example. Champagne is a blended wine, usually made from Pinot Noir Pinot, Meunier and Chardonnay grapes. But how is red wine made from white juice? So where does all the color come from? All the color is in the skins and about 95 % of the flavonoids, and when you ferment it after 2 or 3 days, the color from the skins go into the wine and you have a red wine.
The essential difference in the making of red wine is that the must ferments in its own skins, to extract pigment, tannins and flavor compounds. As with whites, red wine making begins with the grapes passing through a crusher destem, the grapes are not pressed, though.
Instead, both skins and juices are pumped into a vessel together for fermentation cultured yeasts may also be added to red wine, to control the process and to produce specific flavor characteristics. The fermentation of red wine ranges from 2 to 14 days, but the biggest difference is the extraction of color flavor and tannins from the skins called maceration. Learn how to make wine!
The longer the skins are left to soak in there must the more intense the wine will becomes. As red grapes ferment, their skins rise to the top forming a cap or crust. Traditionally, the cap is frequently punched down extracting more from the skins alternately in a process called pumping over wine will be drawn from the bottom of the tank and pumped over the skins.
To achieve the same results when the winemaker is satisfied with the color and concentration of the wine, the liquid, now called free-run wine, is separated from the skins in the tank.
Of course, at this point the skin are all up or are on top and on the bottom of the bottle, the juice ready to remove it and remove it in another thing. Okay, so in fact you can see here come out: oh yeah juice, the skins and grape o are removed by hand and transferred to the press where the skins are squeezed under high pressure to extract remaining liquid coming right.
This concentrated wine, called press wine, may be blended back to achieve the desired balance. With the alcoholic fermentation complete, the juice has been converted but the winemakers work is far from over. It’s hard work to learn how to make wine, but well worth it!
At this point, many wines go through another phase called malolactic fermentation. This is especially important for red wines, from cooler, climates and even white wines like Chardonnay Merlot, lactic fermentation. Learn how to make wine.
Is it’s, a conversion with bacteria as the catalyst for it that converts malic acid to lactic acid lactic is a weaker acid and provides in a softer effect in the mouth. Some wines you want that to happen most Reds.
You want to be softer in the mouth little richer, some whites, some chardonnays, but on the other hand, some whites like Riesling. You want to avoid the malolactic fermentation because it creates more complexity and one of the great things about Riesling is the purity of the free.
Everything down here is a hundred percent French, so the choice to use new oak barrels to add extra dimensions of flavor to the wine is a personal one on the part of the winemaker and if they decide to do so, the country of origin and even the Forest the wood comes from will make a significant difference in the wine.
The barrels are toasted inside to caramelize the wood, adding a toasted or even smoky flavor to the wine American oak tends to add stronger flavors than French and the differences are dramatic, even with the same wine.
These are both Chardonnay yeah. They’re, both Chardonnay. They’re from the same vineyard picked the same day. They’re, both right here from Mendocino go away. This can’t, be the same wine from the same year.
These are totally different. He has quite a different, so why making us like it’s, an art? If you will and it’s, an expression, they have an understanding of how oak is going to impact a different varietal.
So they they use that as kind of part of their palate. To select from I like the quote from Louie martini Louie martini said, I want to taste the place where the grapes were grown rather than the container in which they were aged, and if I want oak, I’ll, chew on a two-by-four, the aging Process is entirely dependent on the style of wine being made, but even in the most inert of processes, the winemaker is still at work, refining his product through clarification as wine ages in the barrel, sediments are produced and the wine becomes cloudy.
The sediment consists mainly of dead yeast cells called Lee’s along with tannin and grape fragments. The winemaker removes these deposits through a process called clarification here. A fining agent, like egg whites, is deposited into the wine barrel to capture the suspended particles.
The heavier solids then fall to the bottom of the barrel, and the clearer wine is carefully removed and transferred to a clean vessel in a process called racking. The most efficient method of removing unwanted particles is filtration and the wine may undergo several stages of refinement each time the wine is pumped through porous materials, trapping solids in the filter membranes.
These sediments are discarded, leaving the wine clear and free of deposits. Every wine has its own character, a unique personality based on varietal type, the vineyard location and the vintage year, but these subtle variations can challenge a winemaker who is expected to deliver consistent wine styles from one year to the next in a process called blending, the winemaker Will combine wines from different vineyards or grape varieties to achieve a consistent and complimentary blend? You can have very ripe, vintages, very dry, vintages and so by using blendings.
You are just adding to the wine. What is the most or the better expression of the variety for a vintage when the winemaker is satisfied with the final wine? It is bottled, sealed label and packaged for shipment office across the globe when it arrives at the consumers table.
The vast majority of wines fully developed and ready to be enjoyed. However, the finest wines are often returned to the seller after bottling and lock the ways the further agent, how far back to the wines go in here.
Oh, this maturation process allows the wines flavors to transform and develop further and with some Reds the harsh tannins to soften 83 vintages. Oh 71, 71, that was a great year. Some of the best Draghi batch we ever made 86 years married and the greatest wines maybe sell it for decades before they reach their peak.
It takes an expert to actually predict the lifespan of fine wines, because the aging process will vary widely with each label and vintage year. However, when the moment arrives and the bottle is open, everyone will be a unique expression of the terroir and the craft of the winemaker wine. It’s fun to learn how to make wine.
From simple beginnings, it evokes such a wide range of emotions for the collector, the enthusiast and the novice there’s, an appreciation for the winemakers craft that takes simple food and transforms it into a complex and fragrant beverage.Follow my blog with Bloglovin